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Service contract design patterns

In the programming community, a design pattern is a recommended way of writing code that includes when to use, or not use, the pattern. Think of a design pattern as a best practice with conditions.

Design patterns for service contracts tell you which types of interfaces to define, and how and where to define and implement those interfaces.

Interface types and locations#

A service contract must define data interfaces, which preserve data integrity, and service interfaces, which hide business logic from service requestors.

Data interfaces define functions that return information about data entities, return search results, and set validation rules and return validation results. You must define the data interfaces for a service contract in the Api/Data subdirectory for a module.

Service interfaces include management, repository, and metadata interfaces. You must define the service interfaces for a service contract in the Api subdirectory for a module.

Data interfaces#

Define data interfaces in the Api/Data subdirectory for a module.

For example, the data interfaces for the Customer module are in the /app/code/Magento/Customer/Api/Data subdirectory.

Data search result interfaces#

When you pass search criteria to a getList() call, a search results interface is returned with the search results.

You must define one interface for each data entity for type hinting purposes. That is, the getItems() function in the CustomerSearchResultsInterface returns an array of CustomerInterface data entities. In GroupSearchResultsInterface, the getItems() function returns an array of GroupInterface data entities.

Service interfaces#

Service interfaces include several interface subtypes:

  • Repository interfaces
  • Management interfaces
  • Metadata interfaces

For file names and coding standards, follow the defined PHP coding standards.

Place service interfaces in the top-level Api directory for a module.

Repository interfaces#

Repository interfaces provide access to persistent data entities.

For example, persistent data entities for the Customer module include Customer, Address, and Group. Consequently, repository interfaces for the Customer module are:

  • CustomerRepositoryInterface
  • AddressRepositoryInterface
  • GroupRepositoryInterface

Repository interfaces must provide these functions:

save(data entity interface)If entity ID is not specified, creates a record. If entity ID is specified, updates the record for the specified ID.
get(id)Performs a database lookup by ID and returns a data entity interface, such as CustomerInterface or AddressInterface.
getList(search criteria)Performs a search for all data entities that match specified search criteria and returns a search result interface that gives access to the set of matches.
delete(data entity interface)Deletes a specified entity. The entity contains the key (ID).
deleteById(id)Deletes a specified entity by key (ID).

Each data entity has a corresponding interface. Consequently, the getById() function in the corresponding interface, for example, can return the exact type.

Management interfaces#

Management interfaces provide management functions that are not related to repositories. For example:

AccountManagementInterfaceDefines the createAccount(), changePassword(), activate(), and isEmailAvailable() functions.
AddressManagementInterfaceDefines the validate() function that validates an address.

Metadata interfaces#

Metadata interfaces provide methods for retrieving metadata, the interfaces are not related to repositories. For example:

AttributeMetadataInterfaceProvides customer attribute metadata and defines the constants used as keys of data array and methods. See more AttributeMetadataInterface.
ProductMetadataInterfaceProvides application product metadata. Defines the getVersion(), getEdition(), getName() methods.
CustomerMetadataManagementInterfaceInterface for managing customer attributes metadata. Defines the constant ENTITY_TYPE_CUSTOMER.
AddressMetadataInterfaceInterface for retrieving information about customer address attributes metadata. Defines the constants ATTRIBUTE_SET_ID_ADDRESS, ENTITY_TYPE_ADDRESS, DATA_INTERFACE_NAME.
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